An innovative new battery from a team of Stanford University researchers could drastically reduce the number of cancer deaths worldwide and help prevent heart attacks and strokes.
The research, published this month in Nature Nanotechnology, uses lithium to convert hydrogen into an electric current and converts the electricity to mechanical energy.
The electrical energy can be used to power prosthetic devices or to create artificial muscle.
This is the first time a lithium-ion battery has been developed for cancer treatment, said senior author Matthew D. Stoner, professor of electrical engineering and computer science.
The battery could be a boon to cancer patients, who often lack the ability to use an electric shock to treat tumors.
The electrode can be implanted in the body and released with a few simple electrical impulses, Stoner said.
This gives patients an extra source of energy to power their prosthetic limbs.
“It’s like a little battery pack,” he said.
The Stanford researchers used an electrode made from titanium oxide and nickel to make an electrochemical device.
The titanium oxide electrode absorbs lithium ions and converts them into an electrical current.
The nickel oxide electrode converts the lithium ions into an anode that can store the lithium in the form of a lithium hydroxide.
The anode is then connected to a metal plate to make the electrode.
To control the electrical current flowing through the electrode, a lithium electrolyte battery is used.
By changing the electrical voltage on the plate, the electrodes react with the lithium and store it.
In a laboratory setting, the battery can store between 3.5 and 8.8 volts of electricity.
The lithium-metal battery works best when there are few electric shocks on the electrode to produce a strong electrical current, said Stoner.
That is why the Stanford team made the electrode only a few millimeters wide and placed it on a thin plastic tube, so that the electrodes could be removed from the body by surgeons.
“We have a lot of data showing that electric shock is associated with higher rates of cancer,” Stoner added.
“We don’t know what it does to the body, so this is an interesting way to get the answer.”
The electrode could potentially reduce the amount of radiation that patients receive in hospitals and doctors’ surgeries.
But because of the risk of heart attacks or strokes, doctors often only administer shocks when they are medically necessary.
A battery is often used to make batteries to store energy.
In this study, the researchers used a battery made from nickel to store the hydrogen ions, and the electrode is a nickel-based metal with titanium oxide in its electrodes.
The researchers tested the electrode in humans and found it to be nearly as effective as a platinum-based electrode.
However, the electrode has a much smaller surface area than the platinum-containing electrode, and it is much less efficient at converting hydrogen into electricity.
This makes it more difficult to store and use energy when an electric impulse is delivered.
The electrode is also less efficient when used for other purposes, such as powering a prosthetic limb.
To improve the battery’s efficiency, the Stanford researchers turned to a nickel oxide electrolyte.
This material absorbs less of the lithium than the titanium oxide, which has more surface area and can be reused.
The new electrode was also much more stable, so the battery could easily be removed after just a few weeks, said graduate student and lead author Kip Thorne.
The team also tested the battery in a device made by researchers at MIT and Harvard.
The device is similar to the Stanford electrode, but it uses a copper alloy to provide the electrodes with an insulator.
The device, called the Ag Electron Configuration (AEC), consists of two electrodes that are sandwiched between two thin wires.
These wires have a surface area of about 2 millimeters, which is about the size of a credit card.
The electrodes were connected to the Ag Electrode Coherent Array (AECA) a device that produces alternating currents.
AEC can store up to 10 volts of electrical energy and store them for up to 20 days.
“The battery is more stable than platinum, but the electrodes are smaller and it’s more difficult for the battery to charge,” said Thorne, who is also the Stanford assistant professor of mechanical engineering.
“But this device allows us to make a battery with a smaller surface that can be made more efficient over time.”
This new battery has a lifespan of about 30 days, and researchers are working to develop it into a better alternative to platinum-silver or platinum-gold electrodes for medical applications.
The team plans to use this electrode for electrodes in prosthetics and for the future implantable cardiac pacemakers.
Stoner, who also holds a research appointment at Stanford, said the battery will help make medical devices more efficient and cost-effective.
“A battery can save a lot in the long run,” he added.
“There are a lot more cancer patients who could use this technology and we